Am J Stem Cell 2012;1(1):75-80

Review Article
No factor left behind: generation of transgene-free induced pluripotent stem cells

Mo Li, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte

Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 N. Torrey Pines Rd., La Jolla, CA USA; Center of Regenerative Medicine in Barcelona, Dr.
Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

Received August 26, 2011; accepted September 5, 2011; Epub September 19, 2011; published January 1, 2012

Abstract: Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great potential for regenerative medicine, yet their implementation in the
clinic still seems far out of reach due to concerns about their safety. The development of safe and efficient reprogramming methods is a
critical step towards clinical application of iPSCs.  Recently, much progress has been made in the technology of generating iPSCs that
are free of integrated transgenes.  The newly developed methods improve genome integrity of iPSCs and will likely replace virus-based
reprogramming in the future.  Here, we review the recent technological advancements of transgene-free reprogramming and discuss the
challenges of ensuring genome integrity of iPSCs. (AJSC1108004).

Keywords: iPS cell, reprogramming, episomal vector, minicircle, excisable lentiviral vector, piggyBac transposon, Adenoviral vector,
Sandai vector, miRNA

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Address all correspondence to:
Dr. Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte
Salk Institute for Biological Studies
10010 N. Torrey Pines Rd
La Jolla, CA USA.
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