Am J Stem Cell 2013;2(1):22-38

Review Article
Mesenchymal stem cell and regenerative medicine: regeneration versus
immunomodulatory challenges

Sujata Law, Samaresh Chaudhuri

Stem Cell Research and Application Unit, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Biotechnology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine,
108 C R Avenue, Kolkata-700073, India; Guest Faculty Professor, Biotechnology, West Bengal University of Technology, Kolkata, India

Received December 31, 2012; Accepted February 12, 2013; Epub March 8, 2013; Published March 18, 2013

Abstract: Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSC) are now presented with the opportunities of multifunctional therapeutic approaches. Several
reports are in support of their self-renewal, capacity for multipotent differentiation, and immunomodulatory properties. They are unique to
contribute to the regeneration of mesenchymal tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, ligament, tendon, and adipose. In addition to
promising trials in regenerative medicine, such as in the treatment of major bone defects and myocardial infarction, MSC has shown a
therapeutic effect other than direct hematopoiesis support in hematopoietic reconstruction. MSCs are identified by the expression of
many molecules including CD105 (SH2) and CD73(SH3/4) and are negative for the hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45, and CD14.
Manufacturing of MSC for clinical trials is also an important aspect as their differentiation, homing and Immunomodulatory properties
may differ. Their suppressive effects on immune cells, including T cells, B cells, NK cells and DC cells, suggest MSCs as a novel therapy
for GVHD and other autoimmune disorders. Since the cells by themselves are non-immunogenic, tissue matching between MSC donor
and recipient is not essential and, MSC may be the first cell type able to be used as an “off-the-shelf” therapeutic product. Following a
successful transplantation, the migration of MSC to the site of injury refers to the involvement of chemokines and chemokine receptors of
respective specificity. It has been demonstrated that cultured MSCs have the ability to engraft into healthy as well as injured tissue and
can differentiate into several cell types in vivo, which facilitates MSC to be an ideal tool for regenerative therapy in different disease types.
However, some observations have raised questions about the limitations for proper use of MSC considering some critical factors that
warn regular clinical use. (AJSC1212004).

Keywords: Mesenchymal stem cell, MSC therapy, immunology, MSC application limitations

Address correspondence to: Dr. Sujata Law, Assistant Professor (Stem Cell Biology) , Stem Cell Research and Application Unit,
Department of Biochemistry and Medical Biotechnology, Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, C R Avenue, Kolkata-700073, India.
Phone: 9051259521; E-mail:
AJSC Copyright © 2011-present. All rights reserved. Published by e-Century Publishing Corporation, Madison, WI 53711, USA